ICANN and Internet

ICANN

was formed in 1998. It is a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation with participants from all over the world dedicated to keeping the Internet secure, stable and interoperable. It promotes competition and develops policy on the Internet’s unique identifiers.
The Internet is a communications network worldwide connecting millions of computers. The computers agree IP based on the so-called “Internet Protocol”, abbreviated. So that Internet users can communicate on the machine, one them numbers assigns to the IP addresses. These numbers are, however, difficult to remember (example: 240.12.216.1), so that domains were practically invented better noticeable alternative to the IP numbers. The so-called domain name system (DNS) to resolve the name, so assigned a unique IP address. Domains
A domain is usually three components separated from each other by a point, top and second level and the host name. www.dotkurd.org is the www for hostname, dotkurd means the second level and org represents the top level.

Top level domains for countries (ccTLD)
A few exceptions all countries have a so-called worldwide ccTLD (country code top level-domain) ISO 3166; there are more than 250 ccTLDs. Examples of ccTLDs: .IQ for Iraq, .DE Germany, .SE for Sweden, .IN for Iran.
For more information visit the the WIPO ccTLD Database which contains links to the websites of all 252 ccTLDs allowing to determine the availability of a registration agreement, the existence of a WHOIS service and the adoption of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) procedures.

Top level domains of generic type (gTLD)
The country extensions there many top-level domains for specific purposes or communities, such as example .edu for educational institutions and .gov for American Government. Since 2000, the ICANN has such as more TLDs.allowed Info for information offerings, .museum for museums and .cat for Catalonia.

Allow new top level domains
A new top level domain registration is when the competent supervisory authority for the Internet requesting ICANN (Internet Corporation for assigned names and numbers). They delegated control award at its subdivision IANA (Internet assigned numbers authority) after acceptance of a new top level domain. The ICANN represents the so-called principle of bottom-up, i.e., in decisions is the entire Internet community include. In addition to the ICANN Board consequently various interest groups are organized in various fora such as the GNSO are included (generic names supporting organization), ALAC (at-large Advisory Committee), the GAC (governmental Advisory Committee) and other so-called Constituencies.